In August the cover of Consumer Reports screamed “I Kind of Ruined My Life by Going to College.” As a faculty member at Kennesaw State University (KSU), one of the seven universities in Georgia that has resulted from a consolidation of two universities (in this case KSU and Southern Polytechnic State University (SPSU), I had a decent idea of what the article would concern. States like Georgia have seen a downturn in state spending for higher education resulting in tuition and fee increases for students, which in turn have resulted in students going further into debt in order to cover costs. What I wasn’t prepared for was just how much debt students were taking on.
In James B. Steele and Lance Williams’s “Lives on Hold” I learned that Jackie Krowen of Portland, Oregon had accumulated $152,000 of student debt. She had taken out $128,000 in student loans, and $24,000 in interest had accrued as she attempted to pay down her debt. Why did Jackie take out such a large amount? She simply hadn’t paid close enough attention to the amount of debt she was accumulating and kept accepting loans that were offered to her as she made her way through school (29 – 30).
I know people like Jackie. When I was completing graduate work at Florida State University (FSU), I lived in “Slumni Village,” FSU’s cheapest, off-campus, graduate student housing, taking out as few loans as possible and completing my degree work as quickly as possible. Some of my friends weren’t as cautious, and after we graduated, I heard a couple of harrowing stories about paying those loans back post graduation. Luckily we earned our degrees in the mid-1990s.
State support for higher education has been declining—some say since the early 1980s. Steele and Williams indicate that it’s been since the mid 1970s. State support actually plummeted after the 2008 recession, and it currently stands at 37% nationally (30). According to Michael Mitchell and Michael Leachman in their article “Years of Cuts Threaten to Put College Out of Reach for More Students,” between fiscal year 2008 and fiscal year 2015 Georgia’s public, four-year colleges saw tuition rates escalate by 69.5%
(inflation adjusted)–only two other states saw greater increases in tuition rates. State funding for higher education in Georgia remains 22.4% below pre-recession levels (inflation adjusted).
As an English teacher what I have noticed in the last several years is that some students simply don’t buy the required textbooks. They often hope to find stories we cover in literature classes online. An additional number opt for cheaper, electronic texts. Increasingly I have seen students pull out phones instead of books when they’re asked to participate in group work or discussions. This past fall I was frankly overwhelmed by the number of students without books. This was when I decided I wanted to learn more about college costs and to write a blog post on the issue.
Searching for the Answers: Student Response
Given that I teach on the campus that once was SPSU (now known as the Marietta campus) and given the fact that several students during the 2015-16 school year had told me that KSU tuition and fees had led them to make the decision not to buy books, I decided to solicit responses from members of my literature class through a short survey in order to obtain more detailed information concerning the cost of higher education at KSU, what students do to afford school, and what unexpected financial issues irritate them. Students could choose not to fill out the survey, to remain anonymous, to allow me to use their names with their quotes, or to be featured on the blog post. 21 students ended up providing me with information. I’ve interwoven individual response from featured students with the response of other students. The five students below represent a spectrum of students who responded to the survey and then talked with me more fully about their answers.
Yvonne Roberts is a sophomore Mechatronics major. After dabbling in photography at DeVry, she received excellent advice from an unnamed African American man that the best thing she could do as an African American woman would be to pursue a Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) degree. She transferred from Georgia Perimeter College in order to take his advice.
Yvonne bears the burden of covering the cost of her education. Her parents are separated and do not help with her finances. It bothers her that her mom must still fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) since FAFSA bases its assessment on what a family can contribution when making its determination concerning aid. Luckily Yvonne does get a bit of help from her boyfriend. She is one of six students of the 21 students who responded to the survey who indicated she received no aid from her parents.
Currently Yvonne takes out both grants and loans for financial aid and she works two jobs. The first is at Play Well Tekhnologies where she is an Engineering Instructor for kids K – 8 where she teaches engineering concepts through core builds with LEGOS during enrichment, home schooling, birthday parties and so on. She enjoys this job because it actually is a great opportunity for kids to become familiar with engineering as a subject. The jobs also allows her to get firsthand observation as she plans to design a toy line for young girls ages 5-8 to get into STEM and to challenge their divergent thinking. Her second job is a seasonal job at Lenox Mall. She would prefer not to work at two jobs, but this is not possible at this time. During her senior year Yvonne would love to get an internship at a toy manufacturing company such as Mattel.
What currently angers Yvonne about college are all the fees. While she understands the reason for the athletic fee since school teams bring a sense of community to the campus, she finds that she doesn’t understand what some of the other fees even cover. For example, why are there both health and wellness fees? Why does she pay a parking fee in order to park in a “free” lot? What does the “Special Institution” fee even mean? Other fees that she is charged for she neither participates in what they cover nor does she care about the activities the cover. Why can’t some of these fees be optional?
In order to spread her income across her college costs, Yvonne rents her books from Amazon and she keeps track of her work hours, her bills, and her homework by using a huge, two-month calendar. Her advice to others is to consider taking a year off between high school and college. In elite circles this has become known as a “gap” year—the high school student still applies to college, but the acceptance is delayed a year. For the not-so-elite students it’s a chance to work, to determine more fully what they want to study, and to mature a bit before entering college. Yvonne believes it’s critical for students to realize that college is nothing to play with. She sees college as a serious challenge and she prefers to lay low, work hard, and come out on top.
Miguel Hernandez is a Mechanical Engineering Technology (MET) major. He was inspired to take this major because his older brother Osiel was an MET major back when MET was still part of SPSU. Miguel is the fourth child in a family of six. He was most likely the youngest student in my American literature class this past fall since he took both Composition I and II as a joint enrollment student and this past semester was his first at
While his parents could help him more financially, Miguel made the choice at a young age to be as independent as possible. It is his belief that being financially independent at an early age has readied him for life. Currently his parents pay for his housing and some groceries since he lives at home. His commute to school takes an hour and a half—two hours with traffic.
Miguel starting work during summer months in his father’s landscaping business when he was maybe eight or ten years old. In order to help pay for his education, he continues to help his dad, but he also works with his brother doing metalwork. The HOPE scholarship is a Georgia initiative that Helps Outstanding Pupils Educationally (HOPE). Students who maintain a 3.0 GPA and take rigorous courses in high school currently are awarded $152 per credit hour at KSU. HOPE doesn’t cover fees or books. One can calculate the amount of money one will receive for HOPE at “Award Amounts” GA Futures. Miguel was awarded the HOPE scholarship and a Pell Grant, and he uses this money to cover a large portion of his tuition. He doesn’t want to pay for books that he won’t actually use in a class, so he consults professors, and he has returned books when it became clear that he wouldn’t be using them.
Osiel told Miguel that the fees have gone up since the consolidation of KSU and SPSU. Like Yvonne, Miguel doesn’t want to pay for fees for things he won’t use. Since he has used the gym and the Big Owl Bus (BOB) shuttle, he is okay with these fees. In fact, he likes the way in which he can go online to find out where BOB is since the buses are GPS coordinated. He did make sure to tell me, however, that he wasn’t too thrilled one time to find out that someone had thrown-up on the bus. Like Yvonne, he is not too upset with the athletic fee. It does give people the opportunity to play college sports—he just thinks it’s a bit high. Kennesaw State University’s athletic fee is in fact the tenth highest fee subsidized by students in the United States, according to Brad Wolverton et al in “Sports at Any Cost,” a joint study conducted by the Chronicle of Higher Education and The Huffington Post.
Miguel does sometimes work up to 40 hours a week, but he tries to put homework first (this doesn’t always happen since he admits to procrastinating). When he has a lot of homework, he keeps his hours to 25 per week and ensures he can get his homework done in the time he has allotted for it. His goal during his time at school is to look for scholarships, budget his money, and spend wisely since one never knows when one’s car may break down or something similar might happen. He also likes to communicate any issues he is having with professors. If professors don’t answer emails, he will go see professors during their office hours.
Aaron Leix is a junior Mechanical Engineering Major. He feels fortunate that his parents cover tuition and fee costs that remain after the HOPE Scholarship money runs out. Aaron then covers costs for housing, food, and gas. He cites housing as his largest expense. It’s expensive to live on campus, but areas off of the Marietta campus are a “crime center.” Aaron doesn’t want to live in these places either since he would worry all the time about safety and be too stressed to study.
Most of the students I surveyed are in similar situations concerning financial assistance from family. They receive some aid, but this assistance rarely covers all of the costs for an education. For example, Elizabeth Gibson indicated that her mom and cousin help with food and books, but the HOPE Scholarship, a Pell Grant, and a loan cover the majority of her costs. Another student indicated that his grandparents help occasionally, but that he works during the summer months and relies on financial aid. Yet another student indicated that he is trying to earn the HOPE scholarship but his GPA is just below the 3.0 GPA necessary—he currently has a 2.968 GPA.
Because Aaron’s family makes too much income (despite his parents caring for two college students and a younger child), he cannot receive financial aid. He isn’t much interested in the loan system so he, like Yvonne and Miguel, works two jobs. The first is in the Kennesaw State University Housing office, where he works 16 – 18 hours a week. Aaron fondly reminisces about the fringe benefits of working for SPSU housing before the consolidation since a free room came with the job. He wishes that Housing would grant student workers at least the benefit of priority registration, which he thinks would be easy for them to do. His second job is at America’s Auto Auction where he works Friday and Tuesday nights at a set pay no matter the number of hours he clocks.
Aaron, like Yvonne and Miguel, is also upset by all the fees. It is he who stated in his survey response that there are “fees on top of fees on top of fees on top of fees.” He, too, listed a number of fees that bother him and stated that it seems like he paid $1,500 just in fees this past semester—it is likely that he is right. Unlike Yvonne and Miguel, he is not fond at all of the athletic fee. He wanted to attend the Naval Academy as his first choice in schools, but he didn’t have the athletic background they wanted. Aaron felt like SPSU was a good second choice since he liked that it emphasized academic teams as much as it emphasized sports. He likes the idea of funding activities such as Game Jam and the Pumpkin Launch. He doesn’t like thinking that his fee payments fund sports and student athlete meals. He doesn’t understand why colleges can’t focus their attention on education instead of athletics.
Aaron also dislikes that he doesn’t understand the differences between some fees and can’t figure out why these fees aren’t all covered on one page on the KSU website. For example, he can’t figure out why he’s paying a shuttle fee, a parking fee, a parking permit fee, and a transportation fee (the shuttle fee and the transportation fee are the same fee). It’s not that Aaron is against all fees—he’s happy that the university has put money into improving the campus grounds, but, like Yvonne and Miguel, he would prefer not to pay fees for services he does not use—like the recreation center. He also wants the university to be more upfront with what the fees are and how exactly they are being used. Otherwise, he thinks students might as well dodge these fees by attending a community college.
If you’re beginning to hear fees as a common theme for disgruntlement, you won’t be surprised to hear that it was the number one item that angered students overall. In fact, Yvonne, Miguel, and Aaron didn’t list all the fees that came up as problems on the survey. Other students listed online fees, meal plans, and lab fees in addition to the fees already mentioned. However, not all of the fees were associated with KSU. One student was irked that he had to pay a $600 fee just to apply for housing at Georgia Tech. Several students linked fees and tuition hikes with the consolidation of the two schools. John Gomez Roman was quite clear how he felt when he said, “I hate KSU’s costs. I hate that I have to pay for the football team and/or any other sports related teams. I hate that I have to pay for gym membership. It’s absolutely unnecessary and it’s just a dumb, corrupt scam.”
Another common theme that began to emerge from the survey is that college is a serious endeavor. Aaron also believes that college is serious business, and he believes students should keep in mind that it’s not about drinking and partying. He puts at the top of his list maintaining the HOPE scholarship. He tries to save money for the cost-of-living expenses that surface. Like Yvonne, he likes to keep a monetary game plan. While he has chosen not to take out loans, he suggests that people who do so keep in mind their yearly salary and weigh it against taking loans.
Ryan Brignola has a story that is quite different from most of the stories of the other students featured. He is a Construction Management major who is earning his degree after serving in the Army as a military police officer from 2002 – 2013 (only one other student had served in the military before entering college). His family has a long history of serving in the armed forces. Ryan is married and has two children: his daughter Emily is nine years old and is in fourth grade and his son Rory is three.
Veterans Affairs not only helps to pay for Ryan’s education, but it also pays for medical
needs and half of his housing through a stipend. The university has a fully staffed Military and Veteran Services Office with locations on both campuses, a Student Veterans Club, and a student lounge on the Kennesaw campus. The mission of the office and club is to provide services that address the special needs of the military community.
Ryan does get a Pell Grant and he doesn’t have to pay for his books and fees, which means he is covered for the two types of costs that bothered other students the most. However, this doesn’t mean unexpected costs don’t arise that his wife’s salary doesn’t cover. These expenses arise when his children or pets fall ill or cars break down or when Christmas presents need to be bought. At these times Ryan makes extra money by driving for LYFT, an organization that is much like Uber. He finds that it is best to juggle money issues by buying used cars and not using credit cards.
Given the needs of both his family and school, Ryan has learned that it’s best to take care of his school work immediately after it has been assigned. That leaves him time to pick up his son, take care of him, and then go to pick up his daughter and take her to gymnastics and tutoring. He is the caregiver while his wife works.
Ryan knows that a lot of students are shy about joining the military, especially given the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. However, he does note that people can choose what role they want to take in the armed forces and that he knows of people who earned their degrees while deployed.
Ryan Levin is a sophomore International Business Major who wants to join the Coast Guard after he graduates. He also hopes to pursue a law degree. On many levels he has one of the best situations out of the students who responded to the survey. He is fortunate in that his parents set up a college fund for him when he was young and that they support him in any way they can. For example, they are more than willing to find tutors if he needs them. Ryan has also maintained the HOPE Scholarship. While he did work as a
valet last semester, he was able to drop the job when he wanted to focus more fully on his schoolwork.
Ryan hopes to transfer to the University of Georgia in the fall of 2017 or in the spring of 2018 since graduating from UGA will look better for his degree. This means that it’s more important than ever for him to maintain his grades. He wants to keep the HOPE scholarship since it will help him in the transfer process. Like Ryan Brignola he tries to get his homework done before he moves on to anything else. He also feels that keeping HOPE helps his parents afford the cost of college. In many ways his parents are his role models and he listens to them and respects them.
What bothers Ryan the most at this time is the common meal plan. He likes eating at KSU, but it’s just not a great value. He figures that it works out to about $10 a swipe. He thinks the cost per swipe should only be $6 or $7.
Addressing Student Concerns
What was interesting for me in reading through the student surveys and in talking with the students is the emphasis they placed on fees versus tuition as a problem area. I have a feeling that the rise in fees is on some level linked with KSU’s rapid growth after the HOPE scholarship was created in 1993, lack of state funding post-recession, as well as with consolidation costs. For example, before consolidation there wasn’t a shuttle fee at all on the Marietta campus, and the shuttle fee on the Kennesaw campus was mainly linked to helping students get from free parking to campus locations. However, the eight miles between campuses has demanded that the fee escalate.
Students originally from the SPSU campus were concerned that fees and tuition had gone up when the two universities consolidated (as was I). It is true that fees went up and that the total cost went up after consolidation, but originally these two universities were relatively equal in affordability. According to the University System of Georgia’s Fiscal Affairs Website, the cost of tuition at KSU and SPSU had been equal up until the fall of 2003. Both KSU and SPSU charged $1,005 per semester for 12 or more credit hours for instate tuition. Because fees were lower at SPSU ($221) than at KSU ($283) at this time, SPSU cost less to attend than KSU.
However, after 2003 tuition began to rise at SPSU due to its status as a technological university. Fees at KSU seemed to offset the differences in tuition. A look at pre-recession figures from the fall of 2008 for both campuses indicates that general fees and tuition were much lower than they are today and that the total costs of the universities were quite similar.
Total costs between the universities still balanced out in 2013, the final year the two universities were separate entities. The total cost at KSU in the fall of 2013 was $3,404 and the total cost at SPSU was $3,405.
The reason why students are feeling a pinch in their pocketbooks on both campuses currently is because fees have continued to rise. The good news is that they will begin to decline for commuter students in Spring 2017 since the meal plan won’t cost as much. Here is what tuition and fees look like today. As you consider the tuition and fees note that in the last eight years tuition at KSU has nearly doubled per semester for students taking 12 or more credit hours, and fees have more than doubled. Students who participated in my survey are correct, it is the fees that are adding up fast.
Since students were confused about the mandatory fees and they weren’t happy with other fees, such as laboratory fees, online fees, and a parking permit fee, I thought I would take a closer look at these fees. I figured that Dr. Ron Koger would be willing to help me out so I arranged an appointment with him.
Dr. Ron Koger
Dr. Ron Koger currently holds the title of Special Assistant to the President. What Dr. Koger does in this position is to sit on the President’s Cabinet and to help coordinate
issues and concerns between the two campuses. Before the consolidation Ron held the position of Interim President of Southern Polytechnic State University during the months after Dr. Lisa A. Rossbacher left the school and before Dr. Papp became president over both campuses. Before that time he was Vice President of Student and Enrollment Services on the SPSU campus. His history with SPSU goes back before my own history with the university. What I have always known about Dr. Koger is that his heart is with the students.
When I talked with Dr. Koger, we noticed right away that it was easy to see why students were confused and why they felt there were fees on top of fees. We not only located the twelve fees listed at the University System of Georgia’s website, but we also located numerous laboratory fees, the online fee for student classes, and a parking permit fee.
A listing of the twelve fees as well as changes in the meal plan can be found at the the University System of Georgia’s Fiscal Affairs Website concerning tuition and fees for all the public universities in the University System of Georgia.
A description of what these fees cover can be found at KSU’s “Tuition and Fees” website . In reading through the fees it’s easy to see where the confusion occurs. For example, there is both a Health Fee and a Wellness Fee. They are actually quite different. The first fee is used to provide health services for KSU students. The second is used to help students understand how best to take care of themselves through health education and events focused on disseminating health information. Students who filled out the survey also thought that the Rec Center Fee and the Sports and Recreation Parks Fee overlapped each other, and on some level they seem to do so. Both seem to cover expenses related to intramural and club sports; however, the first is focused on managing and operating programs and services as well as on paying down the debt for the new recreation center on the KSU campus. The second is more about covering the bond payment and insurance for the 88 acres of land used for sports and recreation.
The final fees that can be confused with each other are aligned with transportation and parking fees. There is both a Transportation Fee and a Parking Fee listed with the mandatory fees as well as a Parking Permit Fee of $26 listed on the Department of Parking’s “Permit” page. Students who do not drive to campus can opt out of this fee, but they can’t opt out of the mandatory parking fee It seems as though the parking permit fee would cover all student obligations, but it only covers arranging for the ability to park on campus. The mandatory Parking Fee pays for things like operations, maintenance, and surface parking, which is why Yvonne still must pay for this parking fee despite parking in a “free” lot. In the meanwhile, the transportation fee is more akin to a shuttle fee, which is what it was termed on the sample student bill that Dr. Koger showed me. This fee funds BOB which transports students and faculty members from the free parking lot to the Kennesaw campus and which transports them between the two campuses.
Now for the fee that came into existence after the recession and is still with us today: the Special Institution Fee. It is being charged by the Board of Regents in order to support instruction and to offset reduction in state funding. It was voted into existence in December of 2008 for the spring of 2009, right after the recession hit. KSU and SPSU students were charged $165 at that time. The fee was supposed to sunset in 2012. However, Georgia had not (and still has not) returned state funding to levels that existed before the recession. According to a resolution on the Special Institution Fee, in 2012 the Board of Regents voted to evaluate the fee annually. It not only remains with us, but it has gone up to $300. On some level this fee is more disconcerting than if tuition had been raised. Students earning HOPE and Zell Miller Scholarships would have had a percentage of this fee covered if it was part of tuition. However, since it is a fee, students must cover this amount out of pocket.
I’ve now covered the mandatory fees, but not the fees that are only charged if a student is taking an online class or a class with a laboratory charge. Dr. Koger and I both noted these types of fees. One credit hour costs $177.33 in tuition for a face-to-face class; it costs $277.33 for e-tuition. However, the amount of fees may be lower for students with an online course load. If the student is only taking online classes e-tuition may be offset by a reduction in fees. However, from what I can understand, a student who is taking one online course and four face-to-face classes will not see a reduction in fees.
What I find amazing is the large number of courses with laboratory and license fees. These fees range from $15 for some electrical engineering and mechatronic courses to $100 for some computer science courses, to $300 and above for courses such as a World Cuisine and Culture course and a course which carries a Nursing Residency fee. Dr. Mary Lou Odom, the Director of the Writing Center, suggested that I look through KSU’s dynamic schedule as a means for finding fees and this turned out to be quite helpful. I selected Spring 2017 and then selected all classes. I typed the word “amount” (classes without fees won’t carry this term) into a “find” search and received the message “more than 1,000 matches”. I realize that this doesn’t indicate that there are over 1,000 different courses with fees, but it does seem to indicate that there are over 1,000 different listings of classes with some type of fee associated with them. I ended up finding fees (the average cost seemed to be about $50) for science labs, geography courses, health and physical education courses, architecture studio courses, engineering and engineering technology courses, computer science courses, culinary arts courses, music courses, nursing courses, digital publication design courses, psychology courses, and a writing center fee that is paid by students taking Composition One.
I am sure that Dr. Koger and I missed some types of fee, but the lists above explain why students are upset about the fees they pay. The lists also make it clear why students like Aaron, want one single page that lists all of the types of fees that students can end up paying. The fees are listed across numerous pages and that means students can always end up surprised by an additional fee.
While I understand that universities have had to find funding to offset the lack of state funding, I am depressed that so much of that funding has been turned over to students. At what point are we as a country telling people that a college education is only for the middle class and the wealthy? The number of student fees at KSU depresses me. The August 2016 Consumer Report Article “Lives on Hold” was followed by Donna Rosato’s article on “Having the College Money Talk.” This article was a guide concerning ten issues parents and their children should cover prior to their children going off to college. The article didn’t acknowledge several things I learned from my survey. A number of college students are on their own—their parents aren’t having the college money talk with them nor are they helping to fund their children’s education. Other college students are parents themselves and are balancing hectic lives.
That said, a lot of the advice in the article is good advice—some of it is advice students from my survey also gave. Given the current cost of an education, it is probably wise to take college seriously and to consider taking a gap year (or two or three) before venturing off to school. We probably can no longer afford to figure out during college what we want to do with our lives. If students don’t want to or can’t pay the tuition and fees that come with a four-year or research institution, going to a community college for a couple of years also make sense. For those so inclined, serving in the military also make sense. Shopping around for universities means paying attention not only to the cost of tuition but also to fees and financial aid packets. A number of my students who took the survey mentioned the cost of books and talked about renting their books instead of buying them. This is definitely a better idea than not buying them at all. Finally, students can also put to use what I learned as a student: graduating as early as possible allows one to begin making a substantial salary early rather than continuing to slide further into debt.
In the meanwhile officials in state governments need to seriously consider the impact that lack of funding is having on both universities and students. One of the reasons Georgia created the HOPE scholarship was to create an incentive for its best and brightest to attend institutions of higher education in Georgia. Now that students are attempting to take you up on this incentive, it’s time to fund the universities at pre-recession levels. Doing so would allow the Board of Regents to discontinue the Special Institution Fee.
Education is not the pretty image I once had of college as a time of soul searching and finding oneself, and, yes, it does feel more like hopping on a conveyor belt and ensuring one stays perfectly on track, but it may be better than joining the average college graduate of 2016 who racked up $37,000 in debt as he picked up his diploma on the way out the door (35). It is better than seeing future decisions that concern buying a house, saving for retirement, and so on all postponed because of debt.
“Award Amounts.” GA Futures, 2016, https://apps.gsfc.org/SecureNextGen/dsp_award_amounts.cfm. Accessed 10 Dec. 2016.
Kennesaw State University. “Student Permits.” Department of Parking, 2016, http://parking.kennesawstateauxiliary.com/student-permits.html. Accessed 18 Dec.2016.
—. “Tuition and Fees.” Office of Finance and Accounting, 2016, http://finance.kennesaw.edu/bursar/tuitionfees.php. Accessed 8 Dec. 2016.
Mitchell Michael and Michael Leachman. “Years of Cuts Threaten to Put College Out of Reach for More Students.” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, May 13, 2015, http://www.cbpp.org/research/state-budget-and-tax/years-of-cuts-threaten-to-put-college-out-of-reach-for-more-students. Accessed 19 Dec. 2016.
Rosato, Donna. “Having the College Money Talk.” Consumer Report, June 28 2016, http://www.consumerreports.org/student-loan-debt-crisis/having-the-college-money-talk/. Accessed 10 Aug. 2016.
Steele, James B. and Lance Williams. “Lives on Hold.” Consumer Report, June 28, 2016, http://www.consumerreports.org/student-loan-debt-crisis/lives-on-hold/. Accessed 10 Aug. 2016.
University System of Georgia.”Resolution.” 12 Apr. 2012, http://www.usg.edu/assets/fiscal_affairs/documents/Board_Approved_Resolution_Special_Institutional_Fee.pdf. Accessed 7 Dec. 2016.
—. “Tuition and Fees.” Fiscal Affairs, 2016, http://www.usg.edu/fiscal_affairs/tuition_and_fees. Accessed 15 Nov. 2016.
Wolverton et al. “Sports at Any Cost.” The Huffington Post and The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 15, 2015, http://projects.huffingtonpost.com/ncaa/sports-at-any-cost. Accessed Feb. 15, 2016.