In short, Mrs. Pontellier was not a mother-woman. The mother-women seemed to prevail that summer at Grand Isle. It was easy to know them, fluttering about with extended, protecting wings when any harm, real or imaginary, threatened their precious brood. They were women who idolized their children, worshiped their husbands, and esteemed it a holy privilege to efface themselves as individuals and grow wings as ministering angels.

Kate Chopin, The Awakening, 1899

Introduction

I remember reading the above line from Kate Chopin’s The Awakening in the early 1990s and thinking deeply about it. It seemed clear to me what Chopin thought—the idea of idolizing, worshipping and effacing oneself as a “holy privilege” belittles the women doing so since they are more than wives and mothers. I thought then and I think now, that motherhood is important—raising children well can be difficult. However, I have also felt that true “mother-women” must be difficult to find even though such women as “angels of the house” have often been idealized. Who can empty themselves of all other identities and only live their lives through their children and husband?

My own mother was not a mother-woman despite having eight children and working only in the home until all her children were well into school. My memories are in the context of being the fifth of eight children. Maybe early on my mother fluttered around her children, fixing them breakfast, taking them to school, and cleaning the home without their help. However, by the time I was in first grade, my mother did not rise early to fix us breakfast or to walk us to the bus stop. She did have regular chores for us to do: set the table, help with the meal, wash and dry dishes, fold laundry, and clean the house—my most dreaded chore was when it was my turn to clean the bathrooms—my four brothers didn’t always have the best aim.

That my mother was not a mother-woman has never really bothered me. She gave up quite a bit of her personal identity for her children and her husband. In fact, when she began working at Long’s Gift Shop, I was happier because she seemed happier. In her essay “In Search of Our Mothers’ Garden,” Alice Walker examines the ways in which women are artists, and my mother was an artist according to Walker’s definition. Her home was her canvas, and she painted and wallpapered walls and created decorative objects. When she worked at Long’s Gift Shop, she ended up creating most of the floral arrangements for the store, and they sold quite well. When the owners sold their store and moved to Florida, my parents briefly considered buying the shop. They did not do so, and my mom lost what was her professional identity.

What I took away from my childhood was the knowledge that my mother was something more than the woman who cared for me. Because she wasn’t June Cleaver from Leave it to Beaver, I learned a lot about being independent and self-motivated.   I also learned that I wanted more opportunities than what she had been offered: I wanted an identity outside my home—a professional identity.

Sarah Gillette’s Leave It to Beaver clips showing gender roles (While June cleans she does tell Beaver that women can be lawyers and doctors).

I become interested in mothers who teach and research in academia a couple of years ago when I interviewed Meg Dillon and Pam Frinzi for a blogpost on women leaders at Southern Polytechnic State University (SPSU); however, my most recent blogpost, “Visibly Invisible: Composition’s Contingent Faculty,” in which not one of the five women I interviewed had children made me decide to move forward with the idea to write about mothers, and so I interviewed three women who have children and who have juggled identities that embrace being professionals, wives, mothers, daughters, and their own persons. The complex intersection of time, place, culture, and identity has often determined what opportunities are afforded women.

America’s Working Mothers

Stephanie Coontz, a leading authority on the American family, explains in her essay, “The American Family,” that the American working mother is not an invention that began in the 21st century. Women in rural communities have always worked side-by-side with husbands and children on farms. In the 1890’s American working-class women began toiling in factories for extremely low wages, as did their children, who worked full-time in mines, mills, and sweatshops. Women could make more money on the streets as prostitutes, and some women chose this route instead.

According to Coontz the 1920s marked the beginning of an anomaly in which child labor diminished and the labor of mothers did not increase to compensate for the lack of family earnings. While women did fill jobs in the latter half of the 1940’s to help with World War II efforts, the dual-earner trend didn’t pick back up until the 1950s, a time period that also marked the decade in which the husband as sole income provider was at a high with 2/3rds of all families falling into this bracket.

Thankfully women today have many more choices than laboring on a farm, working in a factory, or walking the streets as a prostitute. In fact, women have career options similar to men because they, too, are earning college degrees. In fact, in her article “The Slow Climb Up the Higher Ed Ladder,” for the American Association of University Women (AAUW), Sara Kaplaniak points out that women now outnumber men in undergraduate enrollment, and that they are more likely to pursue an advanced degree (11).

Since the United States also places a higher value on the wellbeing of children than it did in the 19th century, parents who earn dual incomes are more reliant on maternity leave and on childcare. Unfortunately the United States hasn’t done much to change either of these two support systems. In her Bloomberg Businessweek article

Cover of Bloomberg Businessweek, Jan. 27, 2016
Cover of Bloomberg Businessweek, Jan. 27, 2016

Can the US ever fix its Messed-Up Maternity Leave System?” Claire Suddath finds that the United States lags behind most countries when it comes to paid maternity leave. She cites the United Nations’ International Labour Organization as finding that “there are only two countries in the world that don’t have some form of legally protected, partially paid time off for working women who’ve just had a baby: Papua New Guinea and the U.S.” In the meanwhile government support and affordable childcare options haven’t changed enough since the 1950s to fully support dual-earners and the larger role men play in rearing children (Coontz).

From what I can tell, the current maternity choices for a female faculty member in academia at institutions that are a part of the University System of Georgia are as follows:

  • She can resign from her job and return to the workforce when her children are older
  • She can take family and medical leave as defined by the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) for unpaid leave, or she can use accumulated sick-leave hours or short-term disability leave for paid leave, but she will be docked a year on her tenure clock
  • She can manage to deliver her babies in the summer so that she doesn’t have to go back to work until the fall
  • She can find a way to take as few days as possible off after giving birth so that she can continue with her semester.

The last three options include finding affordable childcare that meets the needs of the family and that doesn’t cut too much into the benefit of having both spouses earn an income.

I’ve interviewed three women who teach at Kennesaw State University (KSU). Two of the women I interviewed are now both mothers and grandparents. They took two very different routes to their current positions as lecturers within the Digital Writing and Media Arts Department (DWMA) on the Marietta campus of KSU. The third woman is an associate professor in the School of Communication who is younger in age and is in the process of raising her four young children.

Leslie Hankey: Leaving and Regaining a Piece of One’s Self

Leslie Hankey teaches a variety of  graphics-related courses for DWMA.

Leslie Hankey
Leslie Hankey

She is a mother of three (one of whom is a stepchild) and a grandmother of one. She earned a Bachelors degree in Business Administration from the University of Georgia in 1979 (her father had suggested the business degree because he didn’t think she would find a job in art or graphic design—her first two choices). After she graduated, she worked at Oxford Industries Retail as a Retail Group Manager for nine years. This position worked out well for her since it melded her love of aesthetics with her business degree and she learned about clothing design, merchandising, and advertisement.

However, when Leslie was 29, she married Charles Hankey and soon after she decided to “retire” so she could raise the children. April, her stepdaughter, was soon followed by Tess and Charlie.

Leslie with family members at April's wedding.
Leslie with family members at April’s wedding.

Leslie returned to work twelve years later when her youngest was in sixth grade. She took a job as an advancement assistant, working on communications and special projects for Whitefield Academy. Her job dealt with creative endeavors for marketing and included developing content for the school’s website. At this point

in time the Adobe Creative Suite had just been developed, and Leslie began to take classes at Emory University for Illustrator and InDesign. She found out about the Masters of Science in Information Design and Communication (MS IDC) at SPSU and decided to go back to school for the degree. When Leslie was offered a graduate assistantship at SPSU and began work at the university, she felt as though her own professional identity was truly sparking once more. While she is grateful for the opportunities that working for the private school gave her (it did pay for half of her degree), she found that she wasn’t able to get out of the “mom” zone while working there.

When Mark Nunes, the Chair of SPSU’s English, Technical Communication, and Media Arts (ETCMA—now DWMA) Department began to lure her into working for the department, Leslie took him up on his offer. She began as an adjunct faculty member, was then hired as a temporary full-time instructor, and was then hired as a lecturer in January of 2015.

Regaining her professional identity has taken Leslie down some unexpected avenues, both professionally and personally. Not only has she enjoyed teaching students, but she has also grown as a scholar. She and Donna Colebeck, who teaches art classes for the Interactive Design Program, wrote Opposites Attract: Intersecting Perspectives, Disciplines, and Contexts for Inclusive Design concerning their experience being shadowed in the classroom by Professor Mohammad Ali Khan, a professor from the Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture in Karachi, Pakistan. This paper is an outgrowth of a $1 million dollar U.S. State Grant dealing with the “Establishment of an Academic Partnership in Communication Design with the Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture in Karachi, Pakistan, that has been headed by Hussein Abaza, an Associate Professor of Construction Management at KSU (Laura Palmer, the chair of DWMA, currently helps Abaza manage the grant).   Saleh Uddin, a Professor of Architecture at KSU, and Leslie collaborated on another paper Interdisciplinary Collaborative Project at a Polytechnic: A High Hurdles Race.

As a professional Leslie has also used her skills outside of academia. She is a content marketing consultant for kki, a Brazilian Creative Agency, which is trying to establish

The book covers for Leslie's three self-published books.
The book covers for Leslie’s three self-published books.

itself in the Atlanta area. Leslie met the owner, Clarissa Medeiros, when she was an international student and stayed at Leslie’s home for five months in 1996. Leslie helps one of their clients, Lissy Parker, with front-end design and content management for her blog

On a more personal note, Leslie has used her skills to write, illustrate, and self-publish two books: Peaks, Valleys and Mule Train Letters  and Charlie Boy and the Bear: Tales from the Mountain Top. I’ve had the chance to read the first book, which is told through an exchange of letters between Leslie and her daughter Tess while Tess was taking part in the California Conservation Corps Backcountry Trails Program at Yosemite Park. This exchange of letters on some level reminds me of the epistolary novels of the 18th century in that a story develops across the letters, yet the type of content is quite different. Our heroine Tess Hankey spends the entire time camping out in a tent or under the stars as she works with her team to hike and mend trails. With each letter readers see her development and confidence grow as she challenges herself to become a leader and a teammate on whom others can rely. In the meanwhile her mother, our Leslie, ensures that Tess’s story shines as she uses her own letters to urge Tess to tell more about her teammates and their experiences. Leslie must also use her letters to break the type of sad news that one usually reserves for face-to-face meetings or phone calls as the family at home deals with career issues and injuries.

Leslie has also edited and published a collection of poems entitle Noontoola Frame of Mind by Rocky Miller, a North Georgia resident and naturalist. She enjoyed the opportunity to use her expertise to help another express his love of the Georgia wilderness. In many ways both Tess’s work at a national park and Rocky’s love of the wilderness intersect with Leslie’s own love of hiking and spending time in North Georgia. Her personal identity that links her with art and the natural world shines through in all her roles as mother, wife, daughter, and professional.

I began to see a maternal linage begin to develop as Leslie and I talked. Leslie’s mother, who died recently, was a professional educator who also completed graduate work. By becoming an educator herself, Leslie has realized the ways in which opportunities open up for both students and faculty members as they grow and learn. Leslie had at first worried that her children might resent her going back to school and work, but she soon realized that they thought more along the lines of “this is just one thing that mother does.” When her daughter Tess gave her an “A+” charm after she completed her graduate program at SPSU, Leslie had renewed confidence that she was handing down an important part of herself. Completing her personal projects such as self-publishing the collections is a way that she hopes to continue to hand down the legacy passed to her. She now has a three-year-old granddaughter with whom to share them as well.

After resigning from her first job so that she could raise her children, Leslie had felt stripped bare. She had given up her pension and her professional identity. When she returned to work twelve years later, she worried that she had already committed career suicide. What she has found instead is that what she still has left is the most meaningful for it is the continuation of her own teaching and learning. When talking with Professor Khan as he shadowed her at SPSU (KSU), Leslie modeled the opportunities that exist when women return to work after raising children—something that is not heard of much in Pakistan. Leslie is glad that ageism is no longer a major problem in the states because she has begun work on her doctorate at Texas Tech University in its Technical Communication and Rhetoric Program. Leslie is very much enjoying the challenges and her journeys. Each time she completes yet another project, class, or degree program, she maps another destination visited on her journey.

Cassie Race: Flexing One’s Identity

While Cassie Race has journeyed through her working life in several strikingly different ways from Leslie, she, too, came to higher education after she retired from another career. In this case the earlier career was also in education, and in this case Cassie did

Cassie Race
Cassie Race

not take time off to rear children, nor did she take time off to complete her doctorate program at Georgia State University.

Like Leslie, Cassie has a strong background in art. She graduated in 1975 from Marshall University with a double major in English and Art. She immediately began a graduate program in reading at Marshall University and graduated from it in 1977. On her route to teaching Technical Writing and Instructional Design on the Marietta campus, Cassie has rarely taken time off. When she did so for a brief period after she retired from teaching high school English and reading, she realized that she missed her professional identity so she jumped at the opportunity to once more get involved with teaching full-time.

Several reasons exist for why Cassie has stayed employed throughout her life. At different points in time Cassie has been the key breadwinner while her husband Tom built his career. She also found that it wasn’t too difficult to teach reading and to manage a growing family consisting of daughter Laura and son Tommy. Luckily reading teachers do not take home the extensive grading that other English teachers face so Cassie was able to get a lot of her work done while at school. Her husband and she placed the children in childcare during the school year and the hours and holiday schedule of a teacher allowed Cassie to have time with the children. By the time she decided to go to Georgia State University for her doctorate in Teaching and Learning with a cognate in Technology, Laura had a driving license and could drive herself and her brother Tommy back and forth to their high school events.

Earning her doctorate was both a hectic and invigorating time for Cassie. She found a mentor in Joyce Many, a dynamic professor whose identity not only embraced typical interests of college professors, but also her own family—she was pregnant and gave birth as she was taking on the role of department chair—and an interest in karate—she had already earned a black belt by the time Cassie met her. With Many’s guidance researching became a passion for Cassie. Her strong interest in her research helped Cassie power through a demanding schedule of teaching during the day and going to school at night, on weekends, and during the summers. During this time period Tom had health issues, she broke her foot, and then her knee for the first time (she ended up breaking it twice), the usual issues of raising two children, as well as her daughter’s marriage.

During the final year when she was writing her dissertation, she let her family know that they would need to fend for themselves quite a bit so she could focus on writing up her research. Everyone pitched in and Cassie completed her dissertation in 2004 while working from a wheelchair. Her committee members of Many, Sharon Pearcey, and Deborati Sen read it, she earned her degree and needed to decide what to do next. At this point she had already spent 27 years teaching at the high school level. She had only three years to go before retirement. After looking into the salary cut she would need to take in order to work in higher education, she decided to complete the three years and to retire. Meanwhile she began teaching students how to pass the Regents exam in reading and writing on a part-time basis at Georgia State University.

While Cassie’s career as a high school teacher was winding down, her career as a college teacher began to wind up. Before she retired from the one, Alan Gabrielli, the Dean of Arts and Sciences at SPSU, needed a replacement for a teacher who couldn’t complete teaching an evening Composition One course, and Cassie agreed to take it on. Soon after she retired in 2007, she became temporary full-time at SPSU. Mark Nunes was in search of someone who could take on multiple English sections as an adjunct professor. Cassie indicated that she would help him out, but only if he would hire her as a temporary full-time instructor. Mark could only find four sections (five sections was a full-time load), so Alan Gabrielli found a course replacement for Cassie with the new UTeach Program. He needed a person to conduct research and to write up the program’s proposal. Cassie gladly took on this task and created the conceptual framework for the proposal.

By the time the consolidation with KSU rolled around, Cassie was teaching Composition One and Two as well as Technical Writing. In the spring of 2015 DWMA hired Cassie as a lecturer to teach technical writing. I have decided that a part of Cassie’s identity is that of fearlessness. Before she was even hired as a lecturer, Cassie had joined the President’s Commission of Gender and Work/Life Issues. The following spring she became a co-chair for the Commission, working with Elizabeth Boyd, an associate professor in Coles College of Business. In the spring she also decided to enroll in the KSU’s Teaching Academy for Distance Learning (TADL) in order to earn the certificate necessary for teaching online. By this time the technology she worked with for her PhD cognate was old technology. To complete this course and to build a course of her own, she had to take on a fearless mindset. In fact, she felt out of her league for both her co-chair position and her online instruction, but she simply carried on. Cassie explained to me that staying busy during this time period was helping her deal with the recent loss of her mother.

By the time the fall of 2015 rolled around, Cassie was working with Tamara Powell, Jonathan Arnett, Monique Logan, and Tiffani Reardon on an online textbook for the online Technical Writing course for which they had received an Affordable Learning Georgia Textbook Transformation Grant. The next thing she knew she was serving on the committee that was rewriting the tenure and promotion guidelings for the College of Humanity and Social Sciences, despite the fact that she wasn’t in a tenure-track job. Cassie worked with Laura Beth Daws, Sharon Piercy, Deborah Sin, and Nina Morgan to ensure the language covered all types of scholarly and creative endeavors.

When Cassie retired in 2007 from her job teaching high school, she had felt a loss of professional identity. She had not only taught remedial reading, but she had also worked with faculty members across the curriculum for a reading endorsement program and had trained them to take on elements of teaching reading in their individual courses. However, with all the work she took on for KSU, Cassie suddenly

Cassie and Her Granddaughters
Cassie and Her Granddaughters

found herself trying to have personal time so she could visit her daughter, her son-in-law, and two granddaughters in Las Vegas. Cassie especially dotes on the two granddaughters. When she held her first granddaughter for the first time, she felt like she understood what it meant to feel total and complete joy. Continuing to snuggle and spoil the girls has become important to her. She also prides herself on her strong friendships. She and her best friend Kathy met when they were just girls in high school. Kathy now plays “aunt” to Cassie’s children and their relationship is as tight as ever.

Cassie has been reluctant to let go of any part of her identity, but she has allowed “Cassie, the artist” to go. There simply hasn’t been enough time to fit in everything. She is considering retiring for a second time, but maintaining an adjunct position so she doesn’t have to fully let go of her professional identity and instead balance it more with her own personal identities. Her son is getting married and she hopes that she will soon have additional grandchildren to snuggle. What the years have mainly taught her is that one must be flexible: identities come and go and different aspects of one’s self surface at different times so that relationships can work and goals can be met. Some things fall by the wayside while new interests are developed, and all of this is part of her growth as she lives her life.

Kami Anderson: Integrating and Balancing Identities

Kami Anderson, an Associate Professor of Communication and the Director of the

Kami Anderson, Professor in the English, Technical Communication, and Media Arts program.
Kami Anderson, Associate Professor of Communication and Director of Honors Program, Marietta Campus

Undergraduate Honors Program on the Marietta campus, is quite a bit younger than Leslie and Cassie. She was hired at SPSU soon after she completed her doctoral work in Communication and Culture at Howard University and before she had given birth to her first child. She and her husband Jeffrey were quite deliberate in their plans for having children. They wanted very much to grow their family without Kami having to take maternity leave. The two of them were well aware of the impact taking leave would have on her tenure clock. Thus, the couple set about ensuring the babies were born over the summer months. That they were able to do this for three separate pregnancies that amounted in four children (the last two children are twins), seems to me to be a feat in and of itself.

As you can begin to see, Kami is quite disciplined in her approach to both her personal and professional identities. Most of us probably wouldn’t find the summer months after giving birth to a child conducive to scholarly pursuits; however, Kami used recovery time from the births to read and research. In fact, most of her book, Language, Identity, and Choice: Raising Bilingual Children in a Global Society, was written during summer months so that shortly after her twins were born, it was ready to go to print.

A lot of what Kami has accomplished is because she has worked so hard to link professional and personal identities. She finds that she keeps her sanity this way because seeing each identity as a silo would create an unbearable burden for her—she isn’t sure how anyone could achieve such a task. She believes that it’s best to see how who she is fits with what she does. She tries to ensure that her research, her teaching, and what she does at home, reflect this idea. For example, as someone whose primary interest is in African Intercultural Linguistics, Kami has focused much of her studies on intercultural communication, on her own experience as bilingual, and on raising her own bilingual African American children. Kami’s oldest sons, Jeffrey

Kami with her Twins
Kami with her Twins

and Jachin , briefly attended a trilingual school, and the twins, Jasira and Jason, are in a bilingual daycare not far from campus.

For her book, which was published in 2015, Kami used extensive secondary research, her own experience as a bilingual educator who has traveled to and worked in more than one country, and her own family decisions to examine how identity for African-American families is shaped differently when race and ethnicity are impacted by cultures and languages that are not part of a native country.

When I interview Kami in 2014 for the blog post “Our Own Black Histories: The Standpoints from which We Rise,” I was fascinated by this idea since my husband’s identity has been shaped by living in Yemen, Kenya, and the United States as well as by learning three languages (Swahili, Arabic, and English—both American and British). Cultural shifts have impacted his understanding of all three cultures and all three languages. Kami’s study must be quite interesting, especially since she hopes to share the benefits with her own children.

Part of Kami’s identity is that of an international traveler, and she makes time to travel for educational purposes. This past spring she took an Honor class to Guatemala, and she is currently in Italy, which has made getting information for this interview a bit interesting. Kami sees these trips as intertwining her personal and professional identities for she uses them intentionally to rejuvenate, to reflect anew on her identities, and to explore how she can teach identity development to students who travel with her. It is at this crossroads that she most fully brings her research studies to her position as Undergraduate Honors Director on the Marietta Campus since she is so fully invested in intercultural theories and practices. However, the position of honors director is relatively new (this past fall she “inherited” the position when Iraj Omidvar stepped down from the director position). While Kami may examine more fully the ways in which the position as honors director intersects her research interests, she does not feel that she must stray away from her own research agenda in order to address other professional roles.

Recently Kami received the a Ruth Landes Memorial Research Grant from the Reed Foundation, which will further help her to study African American bilinguals. I am fascinated as I think of the ways in which cultural and individual identities impact each other. As Kami brings to bear the results of her personal and scholarly research on her own identity, it will impact her children and husband, her students, her colleagues, and her production of knowledge for scholarly endeavors, which will in turn change cultural knowledge as it is consumed by her grandchildren, the children of her students, and the next round of scholars.

Conclusion

Writing about these three women has made me think a lot about what it means to be a mother working in academia. The part that I enjoyed learning concerned the various ways in which the women have fed their personal and professional identities. Because two of the women had recently lost their mothers, it made me think even more about the legacies women hand down to their children. I would like to think that what daughters learn from their mothers is a way of seeing that they are never just one identity, and that they, too, are part of a legacy that will enrich the lives of others, whether those lives are the lives of their children or the lives of others they encounter in professional roles.

What is troubling is that new hires in academia at KSU are still facing the same choices that women have been facing for a long time. While other countries are beginning to examine paid “maternity” leave as something to grant both parents no matter the career, academia in Georgia is still tied to a “disability” leave for the mother only so that insurance will cover it, and taking “disability” leave still amounts to placing women on the “mommy” track. Once we move past the leave issue and begin to look at the childcare issue, some 1500 universities in the United States provide childcare or learning-center care for children of faculty members and/or students (EducationDepartment.org). The Presidential Commission on Gender and Work Life has examined the issue, and it reported on its efforts in April of this year. In order to open such a facility, KSU would still need to build it, determine the type of facility, its clientele, and its staffing. Ryan Gleason and Stephanie Snyder of BestColleges.com put together a list of the top 50 universities that they believe offer the best childcare opportunities. The only university in Georgia to make the list is Emory University which was ranked 49th.  No public university in Georgia made the list.

I would like to conclude simply with the idea that both men and women must struggle to determine what are their identities as family members and as professionals. However, as a country we have not worked very hard at making it as easy for women to fulfill themselves through a number of identities. In my last post, one of the women was still struggling to determine when she should go ahead and have her first child. As fewer tenure-track positions are offered, it seems as though this struggle will only get more difficult for women unless they decide not to bother even getting on the tenure track. Cassie has looked at her identities and the ways in which she has been flexible in order to achieve different goals at different points in time. What are the ways in which universities have been most flexible to help with work-life balance?  KSU Employee Handbook indicates that there is a bit of flexibility in work schedules for staff (faculty have more opportunity since they can teach online or work with their chair to choose class hours that work for them), but what more could KSU or the University System of Georgia do to help employees? What are the ways in which management in other career fields are flexible? How do they achieve flexibility without incurring economic problems? The Counsel of Economic Advisors for the White House addresses these issues in their publication Work-Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Figuring out best practices can only help both women and men in the end.

Works Cited

Anderson, Kami. Language, Identity, and Choice: Raising Bilingual Children in a Global SocietyLanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2015.

Gleason, Ryan and Stephanie Snyder. “Best Colleges for Students with Children.”  BestColleges.com, BestColleges.com,  2016.

Chopin, Kate.  The Awakening.  Project Gutenberg, Project Gutenberg, release date 11 March 2006.

Coontz, Stephanie.  “The American Family.” Stephaniecoontz.com,  Evergreen State College and Stephanie Coontz, 2005.

Council of Economic Advisors.  “Work-Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility.”  The White House, Executive Office of the President of the United States, June 2014.

Leave It To Beaver clips: Video, edited by Sarah Gillette, Youtube, 17 March 2014.

Kaplaniak, Sara. “The Slow Climb Up the Higher Ed Ladder.” AAUW Outlook. American Association of University Women, Spring 2016.

Kennesaw State University. “Employee Handbook.” Kennesaw State University. Kennesaw State University, 2010.

Suddath, Claire. ” Can the US ever fix its Messed-Up Maternity Leave System?” Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Businessweek, 27 Jan 2015.

United States Department of Education. “Schools Offering On-campus Daycare Services.U.S. Department of Education,  DepartmentEducation.org, 2001-2014.

United States Department of Labor. “Wage and Hour Division: Family and Medical Leave Act.” U.S. Department of Labor,  DOL.gov., n.d.

 

 

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